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Art History Notes Spring Semester 2012

Class One: 

Symbolism 

-Gauguin Self Portrait with Yellow Christ (1890)

-Gauguin Be Symbolist Portrait of Jean More as 1891

-symbolism is not an art movement

-refers to literature created by Gauguin 

-a movement that is centered in france 

-influences poetry music and art

-symbols in this work: peacock feather, baby jesus with a halo quality

-rather then painting the portrait as specific traits of the individual he uses symbols to project his personality

-The Yellow Christ 1889

-symbolism: using a heightened yellow seeming unreal, yellow being a symbol of death and for other part of the picture as alive(using color line to create something evocative soliciting a response from emotions rather then your mind), not trying to evoke the tragedy of christ, everything in the picture is contradicting everything else in the picture, could be a statue of a crucifixion painted in, the formal qualities color line, two dimentional, dreams, hallucinations, visions

-Imagination/Observation Subjective/Objective Interior/Exterior   

-Impressionist painted outside more concerned with object 

-Symbolists painted from their imagination in their studios more concerned with subject

-Symbolist style cannot be talked about because everything looks different 

-Symbolism was a moment when the arts had diversified exploring other media to use in expressive ways

Redon Homage to Goya; The Marsh Flower, A Sad and Human Face 1885

-Lithograph, preferred medium in black and white 

-Part of a series of six images that is an homage to Goya

-Goya deals with rationality verses dreams/nightmares 

-Nocturnal scene with a moon like figure in the middle, gives off a melancholy feel, looks kind of old sad and death is near on the face, evoking a particular mood based on the experience of the work

-“The title that occasionally identified my drawings can be superfluous. It is justified only where it is vague, indeterminate and even equivocal. My drawings inspire and cannot be defined. They do not determine anything. They place us, as music does, in the world of the ambiguous and indeterminate.”

- The black and white on one level is creating a specific mood and to create a less connected image to the real world

Redon In Dreams (10) On the Dish (1879)

- Interested in faces, free floating solitary figures 

- Something strange and kind of amused, a sense that the head was decapitated, there seems to be an axe on the floor next to it

Redon In Dreams (9) Sad Ascent) 1879

- Light and dark and free floating face, something akin to a vision one might have something that might appear in a dream

Redon In Dreams (#8) Vision (1879)

- Metaphor for symbolism as a whole 

- Couple in the foreground looking at the giant eye, an eye is being seen and is used to be seen, it is being used be imagination in this print, privileging imagination over the observational quality, the idea of seeing the work with for eyes closed, the art is coming from an inner vision instead of an optical one

Gustave Moreau Oedipus and The Sphinx 1864

- Moreau was one of the most popular artist’s his work was extremely fashionable 

- Interpretation of mythological subject’s and how he presented them

- Gives an odd feeling, he takes these stories and finds these darker subtext to it, the subtext here being the sphinx wants to devour Oedipus but perhaps in a sexual way creating a different dynamic 

Moreau Salome Dancing Before Herod 1876

- Femme fatal being Salome a woman who is dangerous and a seducer 

Moreau The Apparition

- Standing before a vision of Saint John the Baptist he is taking the true nature of this story and bringing that to the surface in this dream like way, 

Les Nabis

A group of Artists working in paris 

Paul Serusier The Talisman 1888

- Small painting, painted in Brittany 

- Painted under Gauguins tutoring 

- Paint them as you feel or see them, that is how the trees ended up yellow and blue because that was the way the artist felt they were

Serusier Paul Ranson in a Nabis Costume 1890

- They were trying to exist outside of the present day 

- Nabis is a hebrew word for prophets, artists could see the world in a different way

- Very young artists filled with new ideas

Denis Cavalry 1889

- Intellectual leaders of the group

- Christ on the road to his own crucifixion 

- Compared to the yellow Christ it is a dramatic and transformed subject over simplifying the forms Christ is a silhouette, the nuns merging into a black and white mass in the foreground while being echoed by the roman soldiers 

- simplified religious story trying to depict an emotional story but everything is very generalized and personal the story is secondary to the emotional qualities of the work 

Pierre Bonnard Woman with Rabbit 1891

- Transforming everyday subjects  

- Decorative quality, to create an s curve to her body which is echoed throughout the picture, transforming her form into a decorative force. Flat, japanese artists ignored the rules, model for artists of the Nabis

Bonnard France Champagne 1891

- Intended to sell Champagne, trying to convey the joyful activity of drinking champagne 

- Symbolism is trying to create something emotional but can also be used to sell things, to create something to make us happy instead of deep and sad.

-Nabis rejected painting, creating more advertising images

Bonnard Promenade 1899 (MOMA)

-Screen, row of cabs and nurse maids who are looking after young children 

- living room, functional purpose dividing space

-Female figures with decorative style, a little abstract 

-Would function in a decorative space

-Decoration overlaid on the female form

Vuillard The Workroom 1893

-Mother was a seamstress, painting what was familiar and close at hand, modern domestic life, wallpaper seams to blend in with the ladies dress, blending in with different patterns, not sure whats happening

-Takes familiar subject matter and makes it unfamiliar 

Vuillard Mother and Sister of the Artist 1893

- A kind of awkward pallet and strange poses 

- The mother is commanding the space creating an uncomfortable space between the sister and the mother 

-Presenting a new way of looking at an everyday thing “the home”

Symbolism is taking everyday subject and suggesting an underlying ambiguity 

Edvard Munch The Dead Mother 1883

-Childhood sorrow 

Max Klinger The Dead Mother 1889

-Stranger image, the child on top of the mother

Max Klinger A Glove (Place) 1881

-Series of ten engravings he executed he was twenty three when he made this work

-Semi classic style, starts at a roller skate story line 

Max Klinger A Glove (Action) 1881

-Everyone is rollerskating as a woman drops her glove for Klinger to pick up 

-Unusual for the time, interested in freezing the moment in weird ways

-Interested in the way shadows form figures, picks up this glove starting dreams and nightmares

Max Klinger A Glove (anxieties) 1881

-The Image is visualizing the dream around him

-Oversized glove covering up the moon, hands with glove like features on the left size (anthropomorphic quality) 

-Creating anxiety and fear, before the invention of physiology 

-The glove is standing in for a set of desires and fears 

-Feminine side of gloves

Max Klinger A Glove (Abduction) 1881

- Goya reference

-Beasty has taken the glove, he has lost what he had found that someone else had lost

-Hallucinating, the window is closed and not open 

-Klinger uses black and white because they seem believable 

Max Klinger A Glove (response) 1881

-The glove is everywhere in the image, repartition of the creature which is threatening this glove which represents the woman’s desire

Max Klinger A Glove (cupid) 188

-Glove takes on human form with cupid looking at the glove

-Ambiguous either it ended happy or the glove is dead and cupid is in morning 

Munch Self Portrait Cigarette 1895

- Incorporates his own emotional presence on his pieces 

-Mystery in his persona and presence 

-Seems wired, has been smoking, late at night he’s a bit contrived 

-Artificiality not trying to hide the fact this is a painting

Munch Evening on Karl Johan Street 1892

Munch Military Band on Karl John Street 1889

-Space divided weirdly

-Crude paintings

-Strange faces, the later picture is more symbolist, night time scene, shadow has taken over the city 

-Figures reduced to shadow

-Simplification of the figures faces, become skeleton figures with blank gazes

-He would have several nervous breakdowns and change his style, breakthrough transformation

Munch The Scream 1893

-Even more reduced figure, no clear gender, in the foreground and sickening drop off in perspective in the background 

-The ridge that the figures are placed on

-The figure functions strongly as a symbol

-Loneliness, fear, death, confusion, disaster, we’re all doomed 

-Everyone can kind of relate to the emotional depth and can be reduced to that one figure, easily reproducible 

-Background cuts through the picture destabilizing effect in the photo  

Much Puberty 1893

-Female imagery, looming shadow, death of the young woman’s childhood, her anxiety is a dark cloud, phallic form shadow

Much Moonlight 1893

-Woman all dressed in black placed against a fence, dark shadows, mystery to the woman, sense of the unknown 

-Threatening sexualized woman femme fatale, 

Much The Kiss 1892

-Closed off quality of his work, notify that much paints and repaints in various forms

-Uneasy about the way they are embracing one another, 

Much The Kiss 1897-98

-The couple is front and center swirling lines, faces intertwined, uneasy melding, the window is in the corner 

-Increasingly boiling down the notify to it’s essential

Fauvism 

  -Symbolism is associated with the end of the century anxiety fauvism is the new century, beautiful period as something positive

Matisse The Joy of Life 1905-06

- bright vibrant

-colors are working together to create an atmosphere it is about creating a pictorial unity of a certain kind to create a wholeness not logical in the world but logical in the picture

-seen as crude and raw and primitive 

Matisse Male Model 1900

-he studied with moreau he begins in a traditional style, brushwork

Matisse A glimpse of Notre Dame in the Late Afternoon 1902

-particular time of day, unusual pallet for an impressionist painting

Derain Self Portrait 1904

Valmnick Olivde Trees 1905

These three artist’s become the fauvists 

-Matisse was drawing from van gogh 

Matisse Luxe, Calme, Et Volupte 1904 

-Abandons impressionist and then uses pointillism 

-Influenced by Seurat but is using dots in self expression 

-Modern scene, somewhat of a time and place but there is something mythical about it, nymphs 

-Pleasure, calm and luxury, a tradition within french painting foreign land, tranquility and peace, rather unusual for it’s time (primitive) 

-Issues of the time with style, primitive, not interested in light and shading black line shading, colorful points 

Working within a tradition but he is looking to radically rework it 

Matisse Landscapre of Collioure 1905

Derain Collioure 1905

-Canvas that has been left empty, moved away from pointillist 

-A variety of markings across the canvas Derain is more readable

-Matisse notes on a painter: “Expression for me does not reside in passions glowing in a human face or manifested by violent movement. The entire arrangement of my picture is expressive, the place occupied by the figures, the empty spaces around them, the proportions, everything plays its part.” 

-Thinking of expression in a formal way how color can function expressively and that the paintings formal components should create an expressive pull, he doesn’t say what the end result is but it is intended to be striking, appealing and pleasing to the viewer

-Painting is increasingly moving away from expression 

-A Painting is a substitute to looking at the world as opposed to a window

Matisse Open Window 1905

-Looking through this window, these sailboats in the distance 

-Turning away from the outside world, coming from within them as artists, not worried about painting what they see in the outside world

Matisse the woman with hat

-Not painting from perception, beginning with the motif of the woman but then his expressive will transforms the picture

Derain Portrait of Matisse 1905

-A bit removed from naturalistic but it is mostly a perceptual picture in contrast to Matisse which is more expressive 

Vlaminck Portrait of Derain 1906

-A group that shared artistic concerns and identity in 1905 they showed their work together in Salon D’Automine 

-At this time the group gets their name

-“Donatello amongst the wild beasts”

-Criticizing the fauvist saying tradition is getting attacked by the fauvists 

Derain London Bridge 1906

-Specific dealer sponsoring him to go to london, painting in his style

Matisse Japanese Woman at the Riverbank 1905

-Crude, unfinished, primitive but is exploring and pushing images

-Seen as a joke, that he’s not taking art seriously 

Derain- The Dance 1906

  - seen in nature, topical and non western

- pastoral figures vaguely primitive 

Matisse Blue Nude Souvenir of Biskra

-More primitive subject matter, mattise’s palettete and style changed

-Each of this artists are into non western hard now 

-Matisse is still addressing the theme of the nude in nature

-He is paying much more attention to modeling

-Collecting african masks, inspired by african art and color 

-A souvenir from his travels painted when he came back 

-compared to delacroiz and ingres 

Matise Three Bathers with Turtle 1908

-Nothing avant guard of subject but the style was avant guard

Germany

Heckel Seated Child 1906

-Some of the same types of topics are being digressed from a different perspective 

-Expressive, expression and the primitive are big themes for artist’s

-German are more about brush stroke and less about intense color

-Member of Die Brucke 

Kirchner Program of Die Brucke woodcut 1906

-Group founded in Dresdain 

-Formed in 1905

-Nietzsche was a german philosopher came up with the idea to encourage all individuals to seek out new freedoms

-Bohemian primitive attitude they were trying to create

-Taking a classic subject and transforming it to the here and now, no longer a pleasurable viewer experience of the nude

Kirchner Bathers in a Room 1909

-Similar to goughan these artists never went anywhere, constructed in the study 

-Nothing mythological about them, the setting is the studio

Kirchner Girl under Japanese Umbrella 1909

-Drape depicting x rated sexual activity in the background

-Speaks to the fact that this group sees itself as libertines sexual free

-Woman in the foreground is sexualized in a way 

Kirchner Bathers beneath the trees 1913

Kirchner Bathers at Morizburt 1909-1926

-Male nude contemporary there are very few

-The group go on vacation to the country side where people would take their clothes off and take part in Nachtkultur nudist cults

Heckel Day of Glass 1913

-Traditional reflection 

-Produced many nature nudes the primitive the figure herself looks like an african sculpture 

Kirchner Street Dresden 1908

-Contrasts with his nature paintings

-He invasions city life as a charged space, more dangerous, looking at us with a blank stare

Kirchner Street Scene in Berlin 1913

-Series of about 8-9 city paintings

-More industrial because of the city itself

-Ambivalent relationship with the city 

Kirchner Potsdamer Platz 1914

-Ambivalent about city life

-Jutting angular streets abstracted slightly

Kirchner Self Portrait as a Soldier 1915

-stump represent trauma and the anxiety he felt about the war

-the artist in his studio painting himself in the mirror

-he has a break down and fears that he will no longer be able to paint

Der Blaue Reiter Blue Rider

Macke The Hat Shop 1914

-existed prior to wold world one 

-several of these artists fought in the war and died 

-as opposed to alienated cities that kirchner explains the city Macke has a woman having a pleasant, normal time, safe and positive 

-picture of urban pleasure consumer life

Kandinsky Cover of Der

Blaue Reiter Almanac 1911

-formed in munic 

-macke kandinsky and marc are the three important artists

Marc Blue Horse 1911

Kandinsky The Blue Rider 1093

-Knight on horseback dressed in blue 

-Celebrating tribal art, art of the insane, art of children, folk art outsider art. 

-Thannhauser Gallery Munich which showed off the work by members of Blue Rider 1911

-They were interested in notions of the primitive of purity an art that was uncivilized but profoundly expressive

Jawlensky Landscape at Murnau 1910

Jawlensky Blonde 1912

-Pimative child like quality, heavy outlines

-He did lots of portraits

-Simplistic approach from folk art sources

Munter Green House 1911

-one of the few female artists

Marc Yellow Cow 1909

-Focuses on paintings of animals 

-He believed that animals were more pure/close to godliness then human being

-Felt that humans were stuck up

-Is there a more mysterious idea of an artist than the conception of how nature is mirror in the eyes of an animal? How does a horse see the world, or an eagle or a doe or a dog? How wretched hour soulless our convention of placing animals in a landscape which belongs to our eyes instead of sinking ourselves in the soul of the animal in order to image his perception 

-Fusing together harmony through expressiveness, through the cow and the color, fluid, lyrical 

-System of color symbolism yellow is a gentle cheerful and sensual color symbolizing femininity and bgithness

-Blue is intellectual and spiritual masculinity and robust 

Marc The Large Blue Horses 1911

-Masculine and robust

` -Sees these animals in different ways and uses color symbolism to express that in a particular way 

-Approached in a close up view 

-Lines echoing lines behind them so sense of difference between the horses and the landscape semi abstract

Marc Deer in the Forest 1913

-Seeing the world through the animals eyes 

-The animal experience some of the forms are kind of breaking down into geometric forms

-Influence of cubism 

Marc Fighting Forms 1914

-Celebrating combat

-War was necessary so war would be a cleansing experience 

-The war kills Marc 1914

-not abstract because there is a storyline

Macke Zoological Garden I 1912

-Was killed in september 1914

-Extremely high keyed colors Macke was interested in the ways in which urban life  

-Certain kind of cubist influence 

Kandinsky Old Town 

-Kandinsky was the only one to achieve total abstraction 

-Early Kandinsky he is removed from abstraction 

Kandinsky St. George Number 2 1911

-Figure on horseback, figurative element 

Kandinsky Improvisation 31 1913

-Has been read as a purely abstracted image

-The title suggests the work is spontaneous and without a subject

-If you gave it a title in the meadow would not be abstract

Kandinsky First Abstract Watercolor 1910

-Proceeds other abstraction and can take credit

-If you’re making the first abstract painting how do you know it’s still a painting

-Chronological reduction from his other work 

-A conservative art critic would see this as decoration, unfinished, something to be designed for wallpaper or a dress

-Wasn’t understood as a work yet

Kandinsky Small Pleasures 1913

Kandinsky Painting with White Form 1913

-Synesthesia

-Defended this art by stating in the spiritual and art he saw his works as a process of seeing through the ordinary physical material world and finding the essential and spiritual reality 

-Abstraction has a spiritual value for Kandinsky 

-Intended to evoke/coney to the viewer a spiritual and emotional value 

Kandinsky Black Lines 1913

-Largely exist on a 2D plain 

-No Sense of depth 

-No sense of figuration of humans 

-Utopia

-Is this painting accessible 

-The aims of these artist and whether or not they were successful in their aims 

Cubism Through Picasso and Braque 

Picasso The Absinthe Drinker 1901

-Moves between paris and spain 

Picasso At the Lapin Agile 1905

-Costume of a harlequin 

-Harlequin is a self portrait within this bar with the woman beside him

-Hes a bit out of time and place seen a little like a clown lost in thought

-Boney hand, unsatisfied demeanor 

-Identifying with the down and out of the world

-Pitching himself as an outside also wildly successful

Picasso Life (La Vie) 1903

-Dabbled with the blue pallet and then for two years painted in blue only

-Lots of last minute changing in this picture 

-Figures are interchangeable muddling the meaning

-Loaded figure standing very suggested pictures in the center that could be related 

-Has an adam hand, seems to have something to tell us

-Superficial feeling of having meaning but is empty in away 

-Picasso is working in his own private language 

-Compares Picasso First Communion 1986 Why would he regress artistically?

-Picasso recognizes theres nothing that separates him from over artists who are technically adept 

-Looking for his own style

-He was branding his image

Picasso Family of Saltimbanques 1905

-Rose period trying to be upbeat but still lacks

-Picasso is continuing this kind of theme of alienation with a different color Palette 

-Means circus people family 

-Compared to The old Musician 1862

-Artist whose working at the same time as Matisse Woman with the Hat

-Practices as artists: Matisse big ambitious paintings making a splash. Picasso was a very private painter he didn’t exhibit very much, has a private language where he doesn’t really tell you what the work is about He didn’t really exhibit his works much at all

-Ambrose Vollard was Picassos dealer 

Picasso Self Portrait With Palette 1906

-Flesh tones, more realistic 

-Simplifying figures, large figures, not proportional

Picasso Portrait of Gertrude Stein 1906

-Sat for a long time to try and get this painting done

-Not an evolution change just a transformation of the brand together 

-Influenced by african art 

-Interested in iconography 

Picasso Demoiselles d’Avignon 1907

-Blue Nude might have inspired Picasso to do his own nude

-A group of five nudes, competition for the two artists

-Avant Guard, best patrons 

-Style of the painting that would distinguish him from other painters

-Nothing spontaneous about his paintings

-At the time the picture was carefully labored over 

Picasso Study for Demoiselles 1907

-The subject is about prostitutes in France in the city of Avignon

-In a brothel 

-African Iberian influence and style

-Begins to get towards cubism 

-Picasso is evoking the history of art, tradition 

-Slightly seductive in their posing, exposing themselves to us 

-Facial expressions are serious not as welcoming kind of creepy 

-Although he paints it in 1907 he doesn’t show it til 1918

Braque Grand Nu Large Nude 1908

-Appreciated Picassos large nude painting 

Braque Seated Nude From Behind 1907

-Earlier work, things change after this

-He becomes much more interested in a fauvist palette 

-Working towards a monochromatic color palette 

-Earlier works influenced by Cezanne 

-tumble towards us landscape the painting does not cease in space

-He is developing cubist style

Braque Houses at Estaque 1908

-the beginning of cubism 

Picasso Bread and fruit dish on a table 1908

Braque Musical Instruments 1908

-Cubism gets cubism as a name

-One of the works he submitted to the salon 

-Braques paintings were mostly rejected by the salon 

-The idea that everything is reduced to little cubes 

-Working with very conventional subject matter

Braque Viollin and Palette `1909

-You can really see progression through cubism in the disillusion in the form

-Trompe l’oeil trick of the eye, the expectation of something that we expect to be real

-The nail and the palette reminds us of what the cubists wanted. A cubist painting was supposed to be hung on the wall

Picasso Landscape at Ceret 1911

Braque Rooftops at Ceret 1911

-They collaborate “two mountain climbers roped together

-Braque was untrained and would labor over a painting and picasso could make paintings in an afternoon and is trained

-Braque was advancing cubism more profoundly 

Picasso Portrait of Kahnwiler 1910

-conservative artist remains a portrait on some level

Picasso Ma Jolie 1911-12

Braque The Portuguese 1911

-Share colors

-Not a real break between a figure and the background

-Breaking down the human form the forms of the background into a series of shallow plains 

-Not a single light source each plane has its own logic

Picasso Still Life with Chair Canning 1912

-Collage new step in cubism 

-Rope and chair are real elements 

-A still life of glasses, cafe, newspaper quintessential french subject matter

Picasso La Suze Glass and Bottle of Suze

-A lot of it is made up of wall paper and colored paper and newspaper 

-Introducing real world elements into paintings to take the place of painted representation

-Analytic Cubism analytical search or direction of the forma qualities of a work of art

-Synthetic cubism thinks about contracting a synthesis of various media 

-not being political picking random possibility that the text has relevance 

Picasso Au Bon Mache 1913

-Graphic elements

-Cafe scene a decanter 

-Lid of a label for a box of lingerie from the department store

-Text within the picture has a possible political possibility but the most overt convincing part of the language is in the center

-Crude sexual joke being made within the work

-compared to degas impressionism 

Picasso and Braque were working together then they have a falling out in 1914 and that is the end of it 

Cubism becomes the language of modern art it becomes the language of the avant guard

Style of the painting was modern not the subject matter

Futurism 

Boccioni The City Rises 1910-11

-tower and energy

-within the picture the adjectives the futurists use work

-the assault of the urban space in terms of content and form

-pandemonium a sensory impact

Five Futurists 1912

-They really didn’t want to see themselves as a spin off of cubism 

-They set themselves up as a different ism 

-Almost more important in their branding strategies and marketing then their work

-They are lead by Marinetti 

Portrait of Marinetti 1910-11

-A bit cubist

-colors were different

-geometric shapes

-spheres have a cubism influence difficult to avoid cubism 

Futurist Manifesto 

-They wrote the manifesto before they started producing works of art

-A public manifesto declaring what they were doing 

-Breaking away from cubism in the manifesto

-They wanted to be free and fast instead of having everything static everything against cubist 

-Aligning museums with cemeteries nothing to do with the contemporary world anything having to do with tradition was thrown out in the window -Embracing the present and the future, industrial qualities and rejecting the past

Balla Speeding Car 1912

-futurist subject

-more contemporary more mechanical more industrial

-fast, motion, blurry window viewing

-cubism 

Balla Dynamism of a Dog on a leash 1912

-famous painting

-very brooklyn subject 

-a comic sense of motion 

-dynamism dynamic movement of something the inner force that everything followed an eternal energy they believed had

Balla Rhythm of the Violinist 1912

-same concept as the dog one the hand of the violinist moving suggesting the actually sound a physical form seeing the sound waves being liberalized by balla 

-these artists are using an ails art form on canvas trying to use it for a new purpose that is to try and capture movement but there is only so much you can do with a painting they would have done well to embrace film 

-Balla eventually turns to abstract type things in 1913 

-focusing on the movement the speed leaving out what is doing the moving 

Russolo playing an intonarumori

-noise machine, futurist music 

-art of noise, the noise of back firing motors, random sounds of the street the machine

Boccioni Futurist Evening/Evening in Milan 

-The idea was to break down the divide between the work of art and the spectator 

-multimedia, physical engagement, reviving the world of art and the world that we live in fix the boring life

Carra Patriotic Celebration 1914 

-Futurists were in favor of non purity of the arts trying to do things that mix media together

-Inspired by planes dropping leave lets 

-A call to arms germany declaring war on allies futurists in favor of violence and war

Bragaglia The Cellist 1913

-motion representing futurism 

-embraced the technology of the camera, fashion, food, architecture 

-break with the past either a utopia or a distopian future 

-Futurism embracing destruction when the things start to look old fashion its time to get rid of them it’s a young mans game

War the Worlds only Hygiene 

-The war killed many members of the group

-In some ways they reached their goal 

-Futurism becomes linked with right wing fascist

-Italian futurism a specific moment in italy they decimated their ideas then other groups at the time with shows traveling shows, performances, 

Stella Brooklyn Bridge 1917

-futurist inspired painting of the brooklyn bridge

-diamond jewel like quality to the work

Lewis Composition 1913

-work by Lewis who was a british artist

-inspired by both cubism and futurism 

Cubofuturism 

Goncharove Airplane above the train 1913

Larionov Rayonist Composition 

-Slowly these artists abandoned normative subject matter and moved to abstract 

-Abstract strain of cubofuturism that forms in Russia 

Russia had a group of futurist 

-The culture seemed very stale and bourgeois so they wanted to change it

Malevich The Knife Grinder 1912

-Spoke of this work as a cubofuturist work 

-Influenced heavily by cubism and futurism 

-Character sharpening the knife on the wheel 

-Mechanical element to the work

-Celebrates the movement of the subject has the cubist elements

-Lack of modern machinery he is interested int he labor of the everyday man

-The relationship between man and the machine 

Malevich The Black Square 1915

-Takes the radical step to something that has no relation to the forms of nature

Malevich The Woodcutter 1912 

-Working class labor 

The Morning in the Village after the Snowstorm 1912

-Cubist style interest in the geometric shapes 

-He would have known cubism through art magazines through black and white reproductions

-He was aware of the manifesto of the italian futurism 

-He didn’t really buy into the pure futurist manifesto some of the elements were of interest

Malevich An Englishman in Mooscow 1913

-One of the first Russian futurist exhibition 

-Not clear if this is a portrait or a particular person the top hat identifies him as a english man 

-Is considered cubist because of the collage text 

-Collapsing of the space, cubism the flat form the geometric qualities of the work

-The aspect of floating in front of him, they have a collage look is futurist inspired 

-Slight war time suggestion but no real force 

-World War One i beginning around this time the state of Russia is more or less isolated less art coming in and out and this allows Malevich to focus on this dramatic transformation 

Installation of .10 Exhibition 

-Searching for the void of essence of art rather then having a lot of clutter they would search out what was essential in art

-Variations on the geometric form 

-New style known as the birth of Suprematism  

-Publishes an artist statement From Cubism and Futurism to Suprematism 

-Critical argument about the role of art 

-Abstract painting was the only true response to modern life 

-If you want to reject art of the past we have to reject everything about it, we have to reject figuration all together of looking at the world and thinking about it

-Complete rejection of all the conventions of art 

-The square is the center of this movement

-Abstraction is not a way to escape reality it is reality 

Malevich Red Square and Black square 1915

-Facture/Faktura

-Exploring the pure form of the square 

-The essence of color 

-New Russian Socialist society 

-Scientific problem of abstraction not related to the expression 

-New Visual language for a new society 

Malevich Cups and Saucer 1923

Malevish Design for a Supermatist 

-Becomes a teacher who then influences Russian constructivism

Constructivism   

-The king give up his throne, transfers to the soviet union 

-After 1917 there is no art market there is art created soupy for the state 

-Art was very important in the Russian revolution a tool to converting people to the revolution 

-A poster would be much more comprehensible to the average citizen 

-Important aspect to the revolution 

-The idea of patronage is out the window 

El Lissitzky The Constructor Self Portrait 1824

-The Artist wants to be seen as thoughtful and mathematical 

-Intellectual, rooted in sciences as opposed to emotions 

-Engineer 

Talin Corner Counter Relief 1915

-Also was in the .10 exhibition 

-Malevich was seen as radical but to constructionist rejected painting 

-Did not want to do paintings because of their desire to explore other materials because they are very interested in modern materials

-Using materials the public can understand more readily 

-Activating a space in the room that would otherwise not be noticed

El Lissitzky Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge 1919

-How are you going to speak to the common man and woman?

-Lithograph

-the idea was to reproduce this again and again

-Some did not completely abandon painting 

Lissitzky Proud  4B and Proun 19D 1922

-Product for the establishment of the new art

-Architectural 

-transforming some of them into buildings

-The paintings of a nerd

Popova Spatial Force Construction 1921 

-Support, really drawing your attention to the materials being used

-Textures on the plywood 

-Glossy versus matte, versus smooth

Talin Monument to the Third International 1920

-Was intended to be a tower

-Intended to be metal spiral frame

-Bottom section would rotate once a year

-Extremely ambition 

-“The first monument without a beard”

-Art is no longer existing in the gallery it is seen at the center of the world

Rodchenkp Installation View of the Workers Club 1925

-Workers club hang out how does this resemble a piece of art

-Modern looking

-A utopian vision of a space for workers where they can socialize with one another

-Nothing fancy about it

-Vision of simplicity capitalist luxury 

-New environment that the group created 

-Becomes difficult to maintain an avant gaurde edge

Gerasimov Collective Farm Harvest Festival 1937

-1928 Stalin comes to power and is very conservative 

-This new aesthetic replaces  constructionist

-Propaganda, positive and pleasant attractive this is the new idea of the collective

-People should work together and harvest the bounties the style is regressive 

-Idealization of the everyday man 

0

Post Impressionism

- Cezanne is difficult to date

- Retrospective 1906 which Picasso went to

- Perspective Cezanne

- Color with Matise Gogan and Van Gogh

- Cezanne is the most misunderstood artist

- He allows for a multiplicity of perspectives in one painting 

- Breaks linear perspective and the foundation of the academy 

- Cezanne Still Life Pot Pears and Blue Cup 1866

- Cezanne The Artist’s Father 1866

- Facture makes cross hatch lines with the paint which shows volume 

- Brush strokes model different things 

- Cezanne The Murder 1868

- casting around for subject manner 

- 1874 impressionist show

- 1873 Cezanne The House of the Hanged Man 1873

- Pizarro helping Cezanne how to paint

-  Drop off into the unknown verges into a sublime landscape 

- It’s an uncomfortable place 

- Pissarro The Hermitage at Pontoise 1867

- His landscape construction is traditional 

- Pissaroo Climbing Path in the Hermitage Pontoise 1875

- Mentorship relationship where they work off of each other 

-Cezanne A Mordern Olympia 1874

- two artist’s who responded to this work Monet and Cezanne 

- Painting unstable  

- The process of painting is all unstable the world is a changing place

-  Interest in the still life more then the other parts of the painting 

- Something that is supposed to be still and unchanging becomes the vehicle for something that is changing

- Pictorial Ambiguity 

- Cezanne Plate of Apples 1877

- Not to effect feeling of expression 

- Revealing a truth about a painting that painting is not a fixed rational place

- Disconnect, strange table that goes down and up 

- Instability 

- Multiple truths of multiple different times of each painting

- Monet Still Life with Apples and Grapes 1880 

- Rational makes a lot of sense 

- Cezanne shows volume with paint

- Cezanne Pool at Jas de Bouffan 1878

- Cezanne wants to build something as opposed to the impressionism glimpse of the world

- Earthy color pallette 1878 done with impressionism 

 - Through deliberations and organization i want to make something solid and enduring like the art of museums 

- I would like to do Poussin all over again from nature 

- Cezanne Mont Sainte Victoire 1885-87

- Poussin Burial of Phocion 1648

- Impressionism isn’t enough for Cezanne 

- The momentary glimpse fades as soon as it comes 

- It’s a Poussin that is waving in the wind something permanent and fixed showed the multiplicity of perspectives for a moment 

- Seurat was trained he could paint anything perfectly 

- Stone breaker Le Raincy 1881

- The Mower 1881-1882

- Paul Signac Portrait of Felix Feneon 1890

- Georges Seurat Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte

Progressing modernly through his styles 

- 1886 226 works are submitted to the impressionist salon 

- Crises in impressionism 

- Neo Impresssionism coined by Feneon greater luminosity, optical mixture supports new work

- Scientific work, ordered systematic impressionism 

- Book called Mordern Chromatics by Oydon Root 

- You can get a greater luminosity if you do not mix the colors on the pallette let the eye mix the colors on the painting 

- Complimentary color opposites next to each other 

- Delacroix Jacob Wrestling the Angel 

- Green next to red makes it pop

- The idea of color combinations become more beautiful when they are in harmony 

- Scientific systematic 

- Balance in greatest harmony that is the key 

- Multiple classes

- Puvis Sacred Grove 1884

- Flat bands of color

- Musicality 

- Influence of Seurat

- Physiological impact of line and color

- Upward diagonals are happy downward in sad

- warm colors heighten cool colors bring it down

- Seurat Le Chaut 1889-90

- stylization bringing it up to a happier demeanor 

- warm colors joyous scene 

- cool colors to give a downward mood to a joyous theme 

16

fletchingarrows:

The Edge of the Maple Wood, Alexander Young Jackson, 1910

45

naranjitoo:

Gustav Klimt - The Black Feather Hat (1910)

7

00-0:

Lady and Pierrot, 1910

14

msbehavoyeur:

Female nude II ~ Egon Schiele, indian ink, tempera, watercolor, 1910  via

292

egonschiele:

Rote Hand (Red Hand) – 1910
Egon Schiele

30

22

7

onartandexpression:

Marcel Duchamp
nude with black stockings
1910
oil on canvas